About Maud

MAUD stands for Material Analysis Using Diffraction.
It is a general diffraction/reflectivity analysis program mainly based on the Rietveld method, but not limited to.

Main features are:

  • Written in Java can run on Windows, MacOSX, Linux, Unix (needs Java VM 1.7 or later)
  • Easy to use, every action is controlled by a GUI
  • Works with X-ray, synchrotron, Neutron, TOF and electrons
  • Developed for Rietveld analysis, simultaneous multi spectra and different instruments/techniques supported
  • Ab-initio structure solution integration, from peak finding, indexing to solving
  • Different optimization algorithms available (Least Squares, Evolutionary, Simulated Annealing, Metadynamics, Simplex, Lamarckian…)
  • Le Bail fitting
  • Quantitative phase analysis wizard
  • Microstructure analysis (size-strain, anisotropy, planar defects, turbostratic disorder and distributions included)
  • Texture and residual stress analysis using part or full spectra
  • MEEM and superflip algorithm for Electron Density Maps and fitting
  • Thin film and multilayer aware; film thickness and absorption models
  • Reflectivity fitting by different models, from Parratt (Matrix) to Discrete Born Approximation
  • Fluorescence full pattern fitting based on crystal structure models (XRF and GIXRF full quantification)
  • Works with TEM diffraction images and electron scattering
  • Several datafile input formats
  • Works with images from 2D detectors (image plates, CCDs, flat or curved), integration and calibration included
  • CIF compliance for input/output; import structures from databases
  • Many other features……look at the Maud in action page.

For the texture/stress part it is based on the RITA/RISTA method by H.-R. Wenk, S. Matthies and L. Lutterotti (see references and picture).
Other researchers contributing to the development of the methodology include M. Ferrari (micromechanic), N. C. Popa (for the Line Broadening), R. W. Grosse-Kunstleve with SgInfo and cctbx, L. Cont and M. Bortolotti (Java development).
Special thanks go also to S. Gialanella and S. Vogel for supporting the work.

Some references on Maud/RITA/RISTA and applications

M. Ferrari and L. Lutterotti, Method for the simultaneous determination of anisotropic residual stresses and texture by X-ray diffraction, J. Appl. Phys., 76 (11), 7246-55, 1994.

H.-R. Wenk, S. Matthies and L. Lutterotti, Texture analysis from diffraction spectra, Mater. Sci. Forum, 157-162, 473-480, 1994.

L. Lutterotti, P. Polonioli, P. G. Orsini and M. Ferrari, Stress and texture analysis of zirconia coatings by XRD total pattern fitting, in ASME Materials and Design Technology 1994, Ed. T. J. Kozik, ASME, 15-20, 1994.

M. Ferrari, L. Lutterotti, S. Matthies, P. Polonioli, H. -R. Wenk, New opportunities in the texture and stress field by the whole pattern analysis, Mat. Sci. Forum, vols 228-231, pp. 83-88, 1996.

S. Matthies, L. Lutterotti, H. -R. Wenk, Advances in Texture Analysis from Diffraction Spectra, J. Appl. Cryst., 30, 31-42, 1997.

L. Lutterotti, S. Matthies, H.-R. Wenk, A. J. Schultz and J. Richardson, Combined texture and structure analysis of deformed limestone from neutron diffraction spectra, J. Appl. Phys., 81[2], 594-600, 1997.

S. Matthies, L. Lutterotti and H. -R. Wenk, Progress in combining Rietveld and QTA Algorithms on Advanced Level, Presented at ICOTOM 11, China, September 1996.

L. Lutterotti and S. Gialanella, X-ray diffraction characterization of heavily deformed metallic specimens, Acta Mater., 46[1], 101-110, 1998.

L. Lutterotti, S. Matthies and H. -R. Wenk, MAUD (Material Analysis Using Diffraction): a user friendly Java program for Rietveld Texture Analysis and more, Proceeding of the Twelfth International Conference on Textures of Materials (ICOTOM-12), Vol. 1, 1599, 1999.

L. Lutterotti, S. Matthies, and H.-R. Wenk. MAUD: a friendly Java program for material analysis using diffraction. IUCr: Newsletter of the CPD, 21:14-15, 1999.

S. Matthies, L. Lutterotti, K. Ullemeyer, and H.-R. Wenk. Texture analysis of quartzite by whole pattern deconvolution. Textures and Microstructures, 33:139-149, 1999.

H.-R. Wenk, L. Cont, Y. Xie, L. Lutterotti, L. Ratschbacher, and J. W. Richardson. Rietveld texture analysis of Dabie Shan eclogite from TOF neutron diffraction spectra. J. Appl. Cryst., 34(4):442–453, 2001.

L. Cont, D. Chateigner, L. Lutterotti, J. Ricote, M. L. Calzada, and J. Mendiola. Combined x-ray texture – structure – microstructure analysis applied to ferroelectric ultrastructures: A case study on Pb0.76Ca0.24TiO3. Ferroelectrics, 267:323-328, 2002.

L. Lutterotti, S. Matthies, D. Chateigner, S. Ferrari, and J. Ricote. Rietveld texture and stress analysis of thin films by x-ray diffraction. Mat. Sci. Forum, 408-412:1603-1608, 2002.

M. Morales, D. Chateigner, L. Lutterotti, and J. Ricote. X-ray combined QTA using a CPS applied to a ferroelectric ultrastructure. Mat. Sci. Forum, 408-412:113-118, 2002.

G. Artioli, M. Dugnani, L. Lutterotti, A. Reckinger, B. Baumgarten, T. Hansen, and J. Torregrossa. Skillful copper forging at the time of the iceman. ILL Annual Report 2003, pages 50-53, 2003.

L. Lutterotti and M. Bortolotti. Object oriented programming and fast computation techniques in Maud, a program for powder diffraction analysis written in java. IUCr: Compcomm Newsletter, 1:43-50, 2003.

H.-R. Wenk, L. Lutterotti, and S. C. Vogel. Texture analysis with the new HIPPO TOF diffractometer. Nucl. Instr. Methods A, 515:575-588, 2003.

L. Lutterotti, D. Chateigner, S. Ferrari, and J. Ricote. Texture, residual stress and structural analysis of thin films using a combined x-ray analysis. Thin Solid Films, 450:34-41, 2004.

S. C. Vogel, C. Hartig, L. Lutterotti, R. Von Dreele, H.-R. Wenk, and D. J. Williams. Texture measurements using the new neutron diffractometer HIPPO and their analysis using the rietveld method. Powder Diffr., 19:5-68, 2004.

C. Wiemer, S. Ferrari, M. Fanciulli, G. Pavia, and L. Lutterotti. Combining grazing incidence x-ray diffraction and x-ray reflectivity for the evaluation of the structural evolution of HfO2 thin films with annealing. Thin Solid Films, 450:134-137, 2004.

Y. Xie, L. Lutterotti, H.-R. Wenk, and F. Kovacs. Texture analysis of ancient coins with TOF neutron diffraction. J. Materials Science, 39(10):3329-3337, 2004.

G. Ischia, H.-R. Wenk, L. Lutterotti, and F. Berberich. Quantitative Rietveld texture analysis from single synchrotron diffraction images. J. Appl. Cryst., 38(2):377-380, 2005.

I. Lonardelli, H.-R. Wenk, L. Lutterotti, and M. Goodwin. Texture analysis from synchrotron diffraction images with the Rietveld method: dinosaur tendon and salmon scale. Journal of Synchrotron Radiation, 12(3):354-360, 2005.

S. Matthies, J. Pehl, H.-R. Wenk, L. Lutterotti, and S. C. Vogel. Quantitative texture analysis with the HIPPO TOF diffractometer. J. Appl. Cryst., 38(3):462-465, 2005.

From Wikipedia:

The Maud Committee (Military Application of Uranium Detonation) was the beginning of the British atomic bomb project, before the United Kingdom joined forces with the United States in the Manhattan Project. It prompted the USA to begin its own atomic bomb project.